Taking effect from 1 January 2018
FIDE Laws of Chess cover over-the-board play. The Laws of Chess have two parts:
1. Basic Rules of Play and
2. Competition Rules.
The English text is the authentic version of the Laws of Chess (which were adopted at the 88th FIDE Congress at Goynuk, Antalya, Turkey) coming into force on 1 January 2018.
In these Laws the words ‘he’, ‘him’, and ‘his’ shall be considered toinclude ‘she’ and ‘her’.
The Laws of Chess cannot cover all possible situations that may arise during a game, nor can they regulate all administrative questions. Where cases are not precisely regulated by an Article of the Laws, it should be possible to reach a correct decision by studying analogous situations which are regulated in the Laws. The Laws assume that arbiters have the necessary competence, sound judgement and absolute objectivity. Too detailed a rule might deprive the arbiter of his freedom of judgement and thus prevent him from finding a solution to a problem dictated by fairness, logic and special factors. FIDE appeals to all chess players and federations to accept this view. A necessary condition for a game to be rated by FIDE is that it shall be played according to the FIDE Laws of Chess. It is recommended that competitive games not rated by FIDE be played according to the FIDE Laws of Chess.
Member federations may ask FIDE to give a ruling on matters relating to the Laws of Chess.
BASIC RULES OF PLAY
Article 1: The nature and objectives of the game of chess
1.1 The game of chess is played between two opponents who move their pieces on a square board called a ‘chessboard’.
1.2 The player with the light-coloured pieces (White) makes the first move, then the players move alternately, with the player with the dark-coloured pieces (Black) making the next move.
1.3 A player is said to ‘have the move’ when his opponent’s move has been ‘made’.
1.4 The objective of each player is to place the opponent’s king ‘under attack’ in such a way that the opponent has no legal move.
1.4.1 The player who achieves this goal is said to have ‘checkmated’ the opponent’s king and to have won the game. Leaving one’s own king under attack, exposing one’s own king to attack and also ’capturing’ the opponent’s king is not allowed .
1.4.2 The opponent whose king has been checkmated has lost the game.
1.5 If the position is such that neither player can possibly checkmate the opponent’s king, the game is drawn (see Article 5.2.2).
Article 2: The initial position of the pieces on the chessboard
2.1 The chessboard is composed of an 8 x 8 grid of 64 equal squares alternately light (the ‘white’ squares) and dark (the ‘black’ squares). The chessboard is placed between the players in such a way that the near corner square to the right of the player is white.
2.2 At the beginning of the game White has 16 light-coloured pieces (the ‘white’ pieces); Black has 16 dark-coloured pieces (the ‘black’ pieces).
These pieces are as follows:
A white king usually indicated by the symbol K
A white queen usually indicated by the symbol Q
Two white rooks usually indicated by the symbol R
Two white bishops usually indicated by the symbol B
Two white knights usually indicated by the symbol N
Eight white pawns usually indicated by the symbol
A black king usually indicated by the symbol K
A black queen usually indicated by the symbol Q
Two black rooks usually indicated by the symbol R
Two black bishops usually indicated by the symbol B
Two black knights usually indicated by the symbol N
Eight black pawns usually indicated by the symbol
p Q K B N R
2.3 The initial position of the pieces on the chessboard is as follows:
Description: A description…
2.4 The eight vertical columns of squares are called ‘files’. The eight horizontal rows of squares are called ‘ranks’. A straight line of squares of the same colour, running from one edge of the board to an adjacent edge, is called a ‘diagonal’.
Article 3: The moves of the pieces
3.1 It is not permitted to move a piece to a square occupied by a piece of the same colour.
3.1.1 If a piece moves to a square occupied by an opponent’s piece the latter is captured and removed from the chessboard as part of the same move.
3.1.2 A piece is said to attack an opponent’s piece if the piece could make a capture on that square according to Articles 3.2 to 3.8.
3.1.3 A piece is considered to attack a square even if this piece is constrained from moving to that square because it would then leave or place the king of its own colour under attack.
3.2 The bishop may move to any square along a diagonal on which it stands.
Description: A description…
3.3 The rook may move to any square along the file or the rank on which it stands.
Description: A description…
3.4 The queen may move to any square along the file, the rank or a diagonal on which it stands.
Description: A description…
3.5 When making these moves, the bishop, rook or queen may not move over any intervening pieces.
3.6 The knight may move to one of the squares nearest to that on which it stands but not on the same rank, file or diagonal.
Description: A description…
3.7.1 The pawn may move forward to the square immediately in front of it on the same file, provided that this square is unoccupied, or
3.7.2 on its first move the pawn may move as in 3.7.1 or alternatively it may advance two squares along the same file, provided that both squares are unoccupied, or
3.7.3 the pawn may move to a square occupied by an opponent’s piece diagonally in front of it on an adjacent file, capturing that piece.
Description: A description…
126.96.36.199 A pawn occupying a square on the same rank as and on an adjacent file to an opponent’s pawn which has just advanced two squares in one move from its original square may capture this opponent’s pawn as though the latter had been moved only one square.
188.8.131.52 This capture is only legal on the move following this advance and is called an ‘en passant’ capture.
Description: A description…
184.108.40.206 When a player, having the move, plays a pawn to the rank furthest from its starting position, he must exchange that pawn as part of the same move for a new queen, rook, bishop or knight of the same colour on the intended square of arrival. This is called the square of ‘promotion’.
220.127.116.11 The player’s choice is not restricted to pieces that have been captured previously.
18.104.22.168 This exchange of a pawn for another piece is called promotion, and the effect of the new piece is immediate.
3.8 There are two different ways of moving the king:
3.8.1 by moving to an adjoining square
Description: A description…
3.8.2 by ‘castling’. This is a move of the king and either rook of the same colour along the player’s first rank, counting as a single move of the king and executed as follows: the king is transferred from its original square two squares towards the rook on its original square, then that rook is transferred to the square the king has just crossed.
Description: A description…
Description: A description…
Before white kingside castling
Before black queenside castling
After white kingside castling
After black queenside castling
Description: A description…
Description: A description…
Before white queenside castling
Before black kingside castling
After white queenside castling
After black kingside castling
22.214.171.124 The right to castle has been lost:
126.96.36.199.1 if the king has already moved, or
188.8.131.52.2 with a rook that has already moved.
184.108.40.206 Castling is prevented temporarily:
220.127.116.11.1 if the square on which the king stands, or the square which it must cross, or the square which it is to occupy, is attacked by one or more of the opponent’s pieces, or
18.104.22.168.2 if there is any piece between the king and the rook with which castling is to be effected.
3.9.1 The king is said to be ‘in check’ if it is attacked by one or more of the opponent’s pieces, even if such pieces are constrained from moving to the square occupied by the king because they would then leave or place their own king in check.
3.9.2 No piece can be moved that will either expose the king of the same colour to check or leave that king in check.
3.10.1 A move is legal when all the relevant requirements of Articles 3.1 – 3.9 have been fulfilled.
3.10.2 A move is illegal when it fails to meet the relevant requirements of Articles 3.1 – 3.9
3.10.3 A position is illegal when it cannot have been reached by any series of legal moves.
Article 4: The act of moving the pieces
4.1 Each move must be played with one hand only.
4.2.1 Only the player having the move may adjust one or more pieces on their squares, provided that he first expresses his intention (for example by saying “j’adoube” or “I adjust”).
4.2.2 Any other physical contact with a piece, except for clearly accidental contact, shall be considered to be intent.
4.3 Except as provided in Article 4.2, if the player having the move touches on the chessboard,with the intention of moving or capturing:
4.3.1 one or more of his own pieces, he must move the first piece touched that can be moved
4.3.2 one or more of his opponent’s pieces, he must capture the first piece touched that can be captured
4.3.3 one or more pieces of each colour, he must capture the first touched opponent’s piece with his first touched piece or, if this is illegal, move or capture the first piece touched that can be moved or captured. If it is unclear whether the player’s own piece or his opponent’s was touched first, the player’s own piece shall be considered to have been touched before his opponent’s.
4.4 If a player having the move:
4.4.1 touches his king and a rook he must castle on that side if it is legal to do so
4.4.2 deliberately touches a rook and then his king he is not allowed to castle on that side on that move and the situation shall be governed by Article 4.3.1
4.4.3 intending to castle, touches the king and then a rook, but castling with this rook is illegal, the player must make another legal move with his king (which may include castling with the other rook). If the king has no legal move, the player is free to make any legal move.
4.4.4 promotes a pawn, the choice of the piece is finalised when the piece has touched the square of promotion.
4.5 If none of the pieces touched in accordance with Article 4.3 or Article 4.4 can be moved or captured, the player may make any legal move.
4.6 The act of promotion may be performed in various ways:
4.6.1 the pawn does not have to be placed on the square of arrival,
4.6.2 removing the pawn and putting the new piece on the square of promotion may occur in any order.
4.6.3 If an opponent’s piece stands on the square of promotion, it must be captured.
4.7 When, as a legal move or part of a legal move, a piece has been released on a square, it cannot be moved to another square on this move. The move is considered to have been made in the case of:
4.7.1 a capture, when the captured piece has been removed from the chessboard and the player, having placed his own piece on its new square, has released this capturing piece from his hand,
4.7.2 castling, when the player’s hand has released the rook on the square previously crossed by the king. When the player has released the king from his hand, the move is not yet made, but the player no longer has the right to make any move other than castling on that side, if this is legal. If castling on this side is illegal, the player must make another legal move with his king (which may include castling with the other rook). If the king has no legal move, the player is free to make any legal move.
4.7.3 promotion, when the player’s hand has released the new piece on the square of promotion and the pawn has been removed from the board.
4.8 A player forfeits his right to claim against his opponent’s violation of Articles 4.1 – 4.7 once the player touches a piece with the intention of moving or capturing it.
4.9 If a player is unable to move the pieces, an assistant, who shall be acceptable to the arbiter, may be provided by the player to perform this operation.
Article 5: The completion of the game
5.1.1 The game is won by the player who has checkmated his opponent’s king. This immediately ends the game, provided that the move producing the checkmate position was in accordance with Article 3 and Articles 4.2 – 4.7.
5.1.2 The game is won by the player whose opponent declares he resigns. This immediately ends the game.
5.2.1 The game is drawn when the player to move has no legal move and his king is not in check. The game is said to end in ‘stalemate’. This immediately ends the game, provided that the move producing the stalemate position was in accordance with Article 3 and Articles 4.2 – 4.7.
5.2.2 The game is drawn when a position has arisen in which neither player can checkmate the opponent’s king with any series of legal moves. The game is said to end in a ‘dead position’. This immediately ends the game, provided that the move producing the position was in accordance with Article 3 and Articles 4.2 – 4.7.
5.2.3 The game is drawn upon agreement between the two players during the game , provided both players have made at least one move. This immediately ends the game.
Article 6: The chessclock
6.1 ‘Chessclock’ means a clock with two time displays, connected to each other in such a way that only one of them can run at one time.
‘Clock’ in the Laws of Chess means one of the two time displays.
Each time display has a ‘flag’.
‘Flag-fall’ means the expiration of the allotted time for a player.
6.2.1 During the game each player, having made his move on the chessboard, shall stop his own clock and start his opponent’s clock (that is to say, he shall press his clock). This “completes” the move. A move is also completed if:
22.214.171.124 the move ends the game (see Articles 5.1.1, 5.2.1, 5.2.2, 9.6.1 and 9.6.2), or
126.96.36.199 the player has made his next move, when his previous move was not completed.
6.2.2 A player must be allowed to stop his clock after making his move, even after the opponent has made his next move. The time between making the move on the chessboard and pressing the clock is regarded as part of the time allotted to the player.
6.2.3 A player must press his clock with the same hand with which he made his move. It is forbidden for a player to keep his finger on the clock or to ‘hover’ over it.
6.2.4 The players must handle the chessclock properly. It is forbidden to press it forcibly, to pick it up, to press the clock before moving or to knock it over. Improper clock handling shall be penalised in accordance with Article 12.9.
6.2.5 Only the player whose clock is running is allowed to adjust the pieces.
6.2.6 If a player is unable to use the clock, an assistant, who must be acceptable to the arbiter, may be provided by the player to perform this operation. His clock shall be adjusted by the arbiter in an equitable way. This adjustment of the clock shall not apply to the clock of a player with a disability.
6.3.1 When using a chessclock, each player must complete a minimum number of moves or all moves in an allotted period of time including any additional amount of time with each move. All these must be specified in advance.
6.3.2 The time saved by a player during one period is added to his time available for the next period, where applicable.
In the time-delay mode both players receive an allotted ‘main thinking time’. Each player also receives a ‘fixed extra time’ with every move. The countdown of the main thinking time only commences after the fixed extra time has expired. Provided the player presses his clock before the expiration of the fixed extra time, the main thinking time does not change, irrespective of the proportion of the fixed extra time used.
6.4 Immediately after a flag falls, the requirements of Article 6.3.1 must be checked.
6.5 Before the start of the game the arbiter shall decide where the chessclock is placed.
6.6 At the time determined for the start of the game White’s clock is started.
6.7.1 The regulations of an event shall specify a default time in advance. If the default time is not specified, then it is zero. Any player who arrives at the chessboard after the default time shall lose the game unless the arbiter decides otherwise.
6.7.2 If the regulations of an event specify that the default time is not zero and if neither player is present initially, White shall lose all the time that elapses until he arrives, unless the regulations of an event specify or the arbiter decides otherwise.
6.8 A flag is considered to have fallen when the arbiter observes the fact or when either player has made a valid claim to that effect.
6.9 Except where one of Articles 5.1.1, 5.1.2, 5.2.1, 5.2.2, 5.2.3 applies, if a player does not complete the prescribed number of moves in the allotted time, the game is lost by thatplayer. However, the game is drawn if the position is such that the opponent cannot checkmate the player’s king by any possible series of legal moves.
6.10.1 Every indication given by the chessclock is considered to be conclusive in the absence of any evident defect. A chessclock with an evident defect shall be replaced by the arbiter, who shall use his best judgement when determining the times to be shown on the replacement chessclock.
6.10.2 If during a game it is found that the setting of either or both clocks is incorrect, either player or the arbiter shall stop the chessclock immediately. The arbiter shall install the correct setting and adjust the times and move-counter, if necessary. He shall use his best judgement when determining the clock settings.
6.11.1 If the game needs to be interrupted, the arbiter shall stop the chessclock.
6.11.2 A player may stop the chessclock only in order to seek the arbiter’s assistance, for example when promotion has taken place and the piece required is not available.
6.11.3 The arbiter shall decide when the game restarts.
6.11.4 If a player stops the chessclock in order to seek the arbiter’s assistance, the arbiter shall determine whether the player had any valid reason for doing so. If the player had no valid reason for stopping the chessclock, the player shall be penalised in accordance with Article 12.9.
6.12.1 Screens, monitors, or demonstration boards showing the current position on the chessboard, the moves and the number of moves made/completed, and clocks which also show the number of moves, are allowed in the playing hall.
6.12.2 The player may not make a claim relying only on information shown in this manner.
Article 7: Irregularities
7.1 If an irregularity occurs and the pieces have to be restored to a previous position, the arbiter shall use his best judgement to determine the times to be shown on the chessclock. This includes the right not to change the clock times. He shall also, if necessary, adjust the clock’s move-counter.
7.2.1 If during a game it is found that the initial position of the pieces was incorrect, the game shall be cancelled and a new game shall be played.
7.2.2 If during a game it is found that the chessboard has been placed contrary to Article 2.1, the game shall continue but the position reached must be transferred to a correctly placed chessboard.
7.3 If a game has started with colours reversed then, if less than 10 moves have been made by both players, it shall be discontinued and a new game played with the correct colours. After 10 moves or more, the game shall continue.
7.4.1 If a player displaces one or more pieces, he shall re-establish the correct position in his own time.
7.4.2 If necessary, either the player or his opponent shall stop the chessclock and ask for the arbiter’s assistance.
7.4.3 The arbiter may penalise the player who displaced the pieces.
7.5.1 An illegal move is completed once the player has pressed his clock. If during a game it is found that an illegal move has been completed, the position immediately before the irregularity shall be reinstated. If the position immediately before the irregularity cannot be determined, the game shall continue from the last identifiable position prior to the irregularity. Articles 4.3 and 4.7 apply to the move replacing the illegal move. The game shall then continue from this reinstated position.
7.5.2 If the player has moved a pawn to the furthest distant rank, pressed the clock, but not replaced the pawn with a new piece, the move is illegal. The pawn shall be replaced by a queen of the same colour as the pawn.
7.5.3 If the player presses the clock without making a move, it shall be considered and penalized as if an illegal move.
7.5.4 If a player uses two hands to make a single move (for example in case of castling, capturing or promotion) and pressed the clock, it shall be considered and penalized as if an illegal move.
7.5.5 After the action taken under Article 7.5.1, 7.5.2, 7.5.3 or 7.5.4 for the first completed illegal move by a player, the arbiter shall give two minutes extra time to his opponent; for the second completed illegal move by the same player the arbiter shall declare the game lost by this player. However, the game is drawn if the position is such that the opponent cannot checkmate the player’s king by any possible series of legal moves.
7.6 If, during a game it is found that any piece has been displaced from its correct square, the position before the irregularity shall be reinstated. If the position immediately before the irregularity cannot be determined, the game shall continue from the last identifiable position prior to the irregularity. The game shall then continue from this reinstated position.
Article 8: The recording of the moves
8.1.1 In the course of play each player is required to record his own moves and those of his opponent in the correct manner, move after move, as clearly and legibly as possible, in the algebraic notation (Appendix C), on the ‘scoresheet’ prescribed for the competition.
8.1.2 It is forbidden to write the moves in advance, unless the player is claiming a draw according to Article 9.2, or 9.3 or adjourning a game according to Guidelines I.1.1
8.1.3 A player may reply to his opponent’s move before recording it, if he so wishes. He must record his previous move before making another.
8.1.4 The scoresheet shall be used only for recording the moves, the times of the clocks, offers of a draw, matters relating to a claim and other relevant data.
8.1.5 Both players must record the offer of a draw on the scoresheet with a symbol (=).
8.1.6 If a player is unable to keep score, an assistant, who must be acceptable to the arbiter, may be provided by the player to write the moves. His clock shall be adjusted by the arbiter in an equitable way. This adjustment of the clock shall not apply to a player with a disability.
8.2 The scoresheet shall be visible to the arbiter throughout the game.
8.3 The scoresheets are the property of the organiser of the competition.
8.4 If a player has less than five minutes left on his clock at some stage in a period and does not have additional time of 30 seconds or more added with each move, then for the remainder of the period he is not obliged to meet the requirements of Article 8.1.1.
8.5.1 If neither player keeps score under Article 8.4, the arbiter or an assistant should try to be present and keep score. In this case, immediately after a flag has fallen the arbiter shall stop the chessclock. Then both players shall update their scoresheets, using the arbiter’s or the opponent’s scoresheet.
8.5.2 If only one player has not kept score under Article 8.4, he must, as soon as either flag has fallen, update his scoresheet completely before moving a piece on the chessboard. Provided it is that player’s move, he may use his opponent’s scoresheet, but must return it before making a move.
8.5.3 If no complete scoresheet is available, the players must reconstruct the game on a second chessboard under the control of the arbiter or an assistant. He shall first record the actual game position, clock times, whose clock was running and the number of moves made/completed, if this information is available, before reconstruction takes place.
8.6 If the scoresheets cannot be brought up to date showing that a player has overstepped the allotted time, the next move made shall be considered as the first of the following time period, unless there is evidence that more moves have been made or completed.
8.7 At the conclusion of the game both players shall sign both scoresheets, indicating the result of the game. Even if incorrect, this result shall stand, unless the arbiter decides otherwise.
Article 9: The drawn game
9.1.1 The regulations of an event may specify that players cannot offer or agree to a draw, whether in less than a specified number of moves or at all, without the consent of the arbiter.
9.1.2 However, if the regulations of an event allow a draw agreement the following shall apply:
188.8.131.52 A player wishing to offer a draw shall do so after having made a move on the chessboard and before pressing his clock. An offer at any other time during play is still valid but Article 11.5 must be considered. No conditions can be attached to the offer. In both cases the offer cannot be withdrawn and remains valid until the opponent accepts it, rejects it orally, rejects it by touching a piece with the intention of moving or capturing it, or the game is concluded in some other way.
184.108.40.206 The offer of a draw shall be noted by each player on his scoresheet with the symbol (=).
220.127.116.11 A claim of a draw under Article 9.2 or 9.3 shall be considered to be an offer of a draw.
9.2.1 The game is drawn, upon a correct claim by a player having the move, when the same position for at least the third time (not necessarily by a repetition of moves):
18.104.22.168 is about to appear, if he first writes his move, which cannot be changed, on his scoresheet and declares to the arbiter his intention to make this move, or
22.214.171.124 has just appeared, and the player claiming the draw has the move.
9.2.2 Positions are considered the same if and only if the same player has the move, pieces of the same kind and colour occupy the same squares and the possible moves of all the pieces of both players are the same. Thus positions are not the same if:
126.96.36.199 at the start of the sequence a pawn could have been captured en passant
188.8.131.52 a king had castling rights with a rook that has not been moved, but forfeited these after moving. The castling rights are lost only after the king or rook is moved.
9.3 The game is drawn, upon a correct claim by a player having the move, if:
9.3.1 he writes his move, which cannot be changed, on his scoresheet and declares to the arbiter his intention to make this move which will result in the last 50 moves by each player having been made without the movement of any pawn and without any capture, or
9.3.2 the last 50 moves by each player have been completed without the movement of any pawn and without any capture.
9.4 If the player touches a piece as in Article 4.3, he loses the right to claim a draw under Article 9.2 or 9.3 on that move.
9.5.1 If a player claims a draw under Article 9.2 or 9.3, he or the arbiter shall stop the chessclock (see Article 6.12.1 or 6.12.2). He is not allowed to withdraw his claim.
9.5.2 If the claim is found to be correct, the game is immediately drawn.
9.5.3 If the claim is found to be incorrect, the arbiter shall add two minutes to the opponent’s remaining thinking time. Then the game shall continue. If the claim was based on an intended move, this move must be made in accordance with Articles 3 and 4.
9.6 If one or both of the following occur(s) then the game is drawn:
9.6.1 the same position has appeared, as in 9.2.2 at least five times.
9.6.2 any series of at least 75 moves have been made by each player without the movement of any pawn and without any capture. If the last move resulted in checkmate, that shall take precedence.
Article 10: Points
10.1 Unless the regulations of an event specify otherwise, a player who wins his game, or wins by forfeit, scores one point (1), a player who loses his game, or forfeits, scores no points (0), and a player who draws his game scores a half point (½).
10.2 The total score of any game can never exceed the maximum score normally given for that game. Scores given to an individual player must be those normally associated with the game, for example a score of ¾ – ¼ is not allowed.
Article 11: The conduct of the players
11.1 The players shall take no action that will bring the game of chess into disrepute.
11.2.1 The ‘playing venue’ is defined as the ‘playing area’, rest rooms, toilets, refreshment area, area set aside for smoking and other places as designated by the arbiter.
11.2.2 The playing area is defined as the place where the games of a competition are played.
11.2.3 Only with the permission of the arbiter can:
184.108.40.206 a player leave the playing venue,
220.127.116.11 the player having the move be allowed to leave the playing area.
18.104.22.168 a person who is neither a player nor arbiter be allowed access to the playing area.
11.2.4 The regulations of an event may specify that the opponent of the player having a move must report to the arbiter when he wishes to leave the playing area.
11.3.1 During play the players are forbidden to use any notes, sources of information or advice, or analyse any game on another chessboard.
22.214.171.124 During a game, a player is forbidden to have any electronic device not specifically approved by the arbiter in the playing venue.
However, the regulations of an event may allow such devices to be stored in a player’s bag, provided the device is completely switched off. This bag must be placed as agreed with the arbiter. Both players are forbidden to use this bag without permission of the arbiter.
126.96.36.199 If it is evident that a player has such a device on their person in the playing venue, the player shall lose the game. The opponent shall win. The regulations of an event may specify a different, less severe, penalty.
11.3.3 The arbiter may require the player to allow his clothes, bags, other items or body to be inspected, in private. The arbiter or person authorised by the arbiter shall inspect the player, and shall be of the same gender as the player. If a player refuses to cooperate with these obligations, the arbiter shall take measures in accordance with Article 12.9.
11.3.4 Smoking, including e-cigarettes, is permitted only in the section of the venue designated by the arbiter.
11.4 Players who have finished their games shall be considered to be spectators.
11.5 It is forbidden to distract or annoy the opponent in any manner whatsoever. This includes unreasonable claims, unreasonable offers of a draw or the introduction of a source of noise into the playing area.
11.6 Infraction of any part of Articles 11.1 – 11.5 shall lead to penalties in accordance with Article 12.9.
11.7 Persistent refusal by a player to comply with the Laws of Chess shall be penalised by loss of the game. The arbiter shall decide the score of the opponent.
11.8 If both players are found guilty according to Article 11.7, the game shall be declared lost by both players.
11.9 A player shall have the right to request from the arbiter an explanation of particular points in the Laws of Chess.
11.10 Unless the regulations of an event specify otherwise, a player may appeal against any decision of the arbiter, even if the player has signed the scoresheet (see Article 8.7).
11.11 Both players must assist the arbiter in any situation requiring reconstruction of the game, including draw claims.
11.12 Checking three times occurrence of the position or 50 moves claim is a duty of a the players, under supervision of the arbiter.
Article 12: The role of the Arbiter (see Preface)
12.1 The arbiter shall see that the Laws of Chess are observed.
12.2 The arbiter shall:
12.2.1 ensure fair play,
12.2.2 act in the best interest of the competition,
12.2.3 ensure that a good playing environment is maintained,
12.2.4 ensure that the players are not disturbed,
12.2.5 supervise the progress of the competition,
12.2.6 take special measures in the interests of disabled players and those who need medical attention,
12.2.7 follow the Anti-Cheating Rules or Guidelines
12.3 The arbiter shall observe the games, especially when the players are short of time, enforce decisions he has made, and impose penalties on players where appropriate.
12.4 The arbiter may appoint assistants to observe games, for example when several players are short of time.
12.5 The arbiter may award either or both players additional time in the event of external disturbance of the game.
12.6 The arbiter must not intervene in a game except in cases described by the Laws of Chess. He shall not indicate the number of moves completed, except in applying Article 8.5 when at least one flag has fallen. The arbiter shall refrain from informing a player that his opponent has completed a move or that the player has not pressed his clock.
12.7 If someone observes an irregularity, he may inform only the arbiter. Players in other games must not to speak about or otherwise interfere in a game. Spectators are not allowed to interfere in a game. The arbiter may expel offenders from the playing venue.
12.8 Unless authorised by the arbiter, it is forbidden for anybody to use a mobile phone or any kind of communication device in the playing venue or any contiguous area designated by the arbiter.
12.9 Options available to the arbiter concerning penalties:
12.9.2 increasing the remaining time of the opponent,
12.9.3 reducing the remaining time of the offending player,
12.9.4 increasing the points scored in the game by the opponent to the maximum available for that game,
12.9.5 reducing the points scored in the game by the offending person,
12.9.6 declaring the game to be lost by the offending player (the arbiter shall also decide the opponent’s score),
12.9.7 a fine announced in advance,
12.9.8 exclusion from one or more rounds,
12.9.9 expulsion from the competition.